Contents of immunological therapies and preventions
Provides all four immunologically applicable ways to stop or prevent cancer
Immune Cell Therapy: Turning Immune Cells into Cancer Fighters
Immune cell therapy treats cancer by taking advantage of the immune system’s killer cells, the T cells. At its most basic, this involves removing cells from the patient, greatly enhancing their numbers in the laboratory, and then giving them back to the patient. Scientists can also alter the makeup of T cells in the lab to make them more powerful. This is known as CAR T cell therapy. It is currently being studied in diseases like leukemia and/or other malignant diseases and early clinical trial results are very encouraging.
Checkpoint Inhibitors: Taking the Brakes Off the Immune System
Checkpoint inhibitors（anti human PD-L1 antibodies） are a very promising avenue for treating cancer. Imagine the immune system is a car, complete with brake and accelerator pedals, telling it when to move forward and attack, and when to stay still. Checkpoint inhibitors disengage the immune system’s brakes, allowing it to attack the cancer cells at full speed. Already approved to treat melanoma and certain lung cancers, therapies like Opdivo (nivolumab), Yervoy (ipilimumab), Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and others may have applications in dozens of additional cancer types.
Monoclonal Antibodies: Making Cancer a Target
Monoclonal antibodies, like the drugs Avastin (bevacizumab), Herceptin (trastuzumab), and Rituxin (rituximab), are effective in treating a wide range of cancer types such as lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, and others. By binding to cancer antigens, monoclonal antibodies mark the cells for destruction by the immune system. Clinical trials of more monoclonal antibodies for additional cancer types are ongoing.
Cancer Vaccines: Jump Starting an Immune Response to Cancer
Vaccines to prevent diseases like measles or chicken pox are commonplace. Scientists are now using similar principles to develop vaccines to prevent, and sometimes treat, cancer. Cancer prevention vaccines include the hepatitis B vaccine, which prevents liver cancer, and the HPV vaccine Gardasil, which prevents cervical and ano-genital cancers. One therapeutic cancer vaccine, Provenge, has been proved for the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical trials for vaccines for other cancer types are ongoing.
Immuno-Cell Therapy (ICT) is aimed at strengthening immune function of the body for combating with abnormal cells such as malignant or virus-infected cells in the body. With this therapy, immune cells of the patient are activated and expanded for killing such abnormal cells.
ICT has already been approved by Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (JMHLW) as an advanced medical technology for clinical use in some limiting types of diseases.
The therapy can be practiced for sole treatment and also for a combined therapy with standard therapies (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy) against cancer. It is also expected that ICT could be effective as an adjuvant therapy after surgery for prevention of recurrence, and also for prevention of cancer in even otherwise normal healthy person, which, we believe, is our most important mission.
ICT is performed just correcting blood from your peripheral vein in our clinic, and 1-2 weeks after, transfused back to your vein. Corrected blood is followed by processing maneuvers in the Processing Center.
Briefly, mononuclear cells are separated from the blood in the Processing Center. The T lymphocytes among mononuclear cells are activated in the flask and expanded in the culture bag. Then, the T lymphocytes are harvested, washed and suspended in physiological saline. The T lymphocytes are in fused into your vein in the clinic.
1) Alpha beta T cell Therapy (αβT cell Therapy)
αβT -lymphocytes have high activity of cellular cytotoxicity among immune cells.
Isolated lymphocytes（T cells）, including, αβT-cell, γδT-cell, NK cell, and other cells, from your peripheral blood are activated and expanded by agents and media outside of your body.
After the activation and expansion of the immune cells as mentioned briefly above, we infuse such immune cells into your peripheral vein. The immune cells include αβT-cells in almost 90% of all population.
2) NK Cell Therapy
This clinic and collaborative institutes are always seeking for providing the most recent NK cell therapy.
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells specialized to eliminate malignant cells via direct cytotoxicity and immunoregulatory cytokine production. As such, NK cells are ideal as cellular therapy for cancer patients, and several studies have provided proof of principle that adoptively transferred NK cells can induce remissions in patients with leukemia. A clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying NK cell antitumor responses, including target cell recognition, activation status, and negative regulatory signals will improve NK cellular therapy for cancer patients.
Clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and preliminary efficacy of NK cell adoptive transfer, especially in hematologic malignancies. Various NK cell sources, isolation techniques, activation approaches, and ex-vivo expansion strategies are under investigation. New approaches have been developed and are being tested to optimize NK cell therapy, including ways to better target NK cells to malignant cells, increase their functional competence, facilitate expansion in patients, and limit inhibitory signals or cells.
NK cells represent a promising cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. In addition to adoptive cellular therapy, adjunct treatments that optimize NK cell targeting and function will enhance their potency and broaden their potential use to many cancer types.
Alteration in the expression of cell-surface proteins is a common consequence of malignant transformation. Natural killer (NK) cells use an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that scan for altered protein-expression patterns against every possible malignant cell, but tumor evasion of detection by the immune system is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer. NK cells display rapid and potent immunity to metastasis or hematological cancers, and major efforts are now being undertaken to fully exploit NK cell anti-tumor properties in the clinic. Diverse approaches encompass the development of large-scale NK cell–expansion protocols for adoptive transfer, the establishment of a microenvironment favorable to NK cell activity, the redirection of NK cell activity against tumor cells and the release of inhibitory signals that limit NK cell function. In this Review we detail recent advances in NK cell–based immunotherapies and discuss the advantages and limitations of these strategies.
3) The dendritic cell therapy
Dendritic Cell (DC) therapy represents a new and promising immunotherapeutic approach for treatment of advanced cancer as well as for prevention of cancer just as that of NK cell therapy. Recent advances lead to successful implementation of DC therapy with reports of complete responses even in stage IV cancer patients who have failed all other therapies. DC therapy or so-called D C vaccine is a newly emerging and potent form of immune therapy used to treat cancer.
- White blood cells are harvested from the patients or healthy candidates.
- Harvested dendritic cells from the patients are multiplied in the carefully conditioned medium.
- The differentiation-induced dendritic cells in the medium are injected back to the patients.
- The subcutaneously injected dendritic cells multiply the tumor specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) in the lymph nodes of patients
- The immune system is extraordinarily precise and powerful, and when successfully deployed, its targets destroyed with little or no collateral damage.
- Malignant tumors develop from the self-tissue components (self), but it is safe because the immune system is trained to avoid attacking self.
4) NKT cell therapy
It has features that are not found in other immune cells that have the properties of both innate immune system NK cells and adaptive immune system T cells, attracting attention.
NKT cells simultaneously express T cell receptors and NK cell receptors and is positioned as the fourth lymphocyte.
Although this NKT cell occupies a very small proportion in the blood and is rare, it has been found that it has a very important role in immune action including antitumor effect.
It has also been found that the ability of this NKT cell to kill against cancer cells is more potent than NK cells. It can be said to be a particularly excellent immune cell that is almighty in antitumor effect.